Le tissu cardiaque

Les fibres musculaires cardiaques sont essentiellement de longues cellules cylindriques avec un ou au plus deux noyaux, situés au centre de la cellule. Les extrémités des fibres sont divisées longitudinalement en un petit nombre de branches, dont les extrémités butent sur des branches similaires de cellules adjacentes donnant l’impression d’un réseau cytoplasmique tridimensionnel continu ; […]


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Le muscle squelettique

Le muscle squelettique est composé de cellules contractiles multinucléées extrêmement allongées, souvent décrites comme des fibres musculaires, liées entre elles par un tissu de soutien collagène. Les fibres musculaires individuelles varient considérablement en diamètre de 10 à 100 um et peuvent s’étendre sur toute la longueur d’un muscle atteignant jusqu’à 35 cm de longueur. La […]

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Cellular Junctions

Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface that mediate cell-cell interactions. They are involved in binding cells together and in binding cells to the extracellular matrix. CAMs are transmembrane receptors and are composed of three domains: an intracellular domain that interacts with the cytoskeleton, a transmembrane domain and an extracellular domain that interacts with an identical CAM on […]

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The Endomembrane System

The endomembrane system constitutes a group of membranes and organelles found in eucaryotic cells. It includes the cell membrane, the nuclear membrane, vacuoles, lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, vesicles and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The membranous organelles interact together to synthesize and transport proteins, transport and metabolize lipids and to detoxify posions. The organelles communicate with one another […]

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On Punishment

Our societies have inherited certain axioms which the passage of time has conditioned our conscience into merely accepting without question. The fact that such propositions have become deeply ingrained in our structures have left them immune from any reflections or deliberations on our part. The concept of punishment is one such concept that dominates the […]

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On New Years

A “New Year” is a very subjective notion. It constitutes a chronological marker defined only by an anthropocentric standard. The duration of a year is merely constructed as per corresponding astronomical phenomena that have been deemed significant by humans. Even though we have largely been preconditioned to assume that there is a naturally ordained fixed […]

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On Ghosts

Many people think that it is too narrow-minded to dismiss the existence of supernatural entities as ghosts. They rely on the famous aphorism that absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. I do, however, think that this aphorism can be misleading and can be used to justify the existence of claims born out of […]

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A Trailblazer of Science

456 years ago today, a true champion of scientific thought was born. GALILEO GALILEI was one of the major luminaries of the Scientific Revolution. His works spurred major intellectual development and scientific growth, efforts on his part which, owing to the dark parochial periods of the time, nonetheless dearly cost him. Despite his unrelenting attempts […]

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Quelle est la taille de l’univers?

En tant que formes de vie transitoires, nous ne sommes simplement pas équipés pour appréhender les étendues inimaginables de l’espace qui nous entourent. C’est en grande partie à cause des limites de perception qui sont inhérentes à nos systèmes biologiques. Ce que nos sens perçoivent et enregistrent n’est rien d’autre qu’un simple fragment de toutes […]

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It is December 31st, 2018. The world eagerly awaits 2019, with lots of celebratory events planned. For many people, “New Years” herald a new beginning. They signal the start of a new cycle where things can recommence anew. But, indeed, the notion is a very subjective one. A “New Year” is a chronological marker by […]

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